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Physical activity modifies the effect of calcium supplements on bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Arch Osteoporos. 2019 02 08;14(1):17 Authors: Nakamura K, Saito T, Kobayashi R, Oshiki R, Kitamura K, Watanabe Y

We aimed to determine whether the effect of calcium supplements on bone metabolism is modified by physical activity (PA) through a subgroup analysis of an RCT. PA may be a favorable effect modifier of the association between calcium intake and bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. PURPOSE: Physical exercise can potentially modify bone metabolism. Here we aimed to determine whether the effect of calcium supplements on bone metabolism is modified by physical activity (PA) through a subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The trial was conducted over the course of 2 years, and participants were 450 healthy women between 50 and 75 years of age who were randomly assigned to three equally-sized (N = 150 each) groups (500 mg calcium, 250 mg calcium, and placebo). Levels of PA at baseline were evaluated by quantifying moderate (4 METs) and vigorous (6 METs) activities based on a 7-day activity recall, and the total MET-hours per week was calculated. Follow-up BMD examinations were conducted 2 years later. Two-year changes in BMD were compared between the intention-to-treat higher PA subgroup (≥ 10 MET-hours/week) and the lower PA subgroup (< 10 MET-hours/week). RESULTS: Of the 450 participants, 418 underwent follow-up BMD measurements. Regarding the lower PA subgroup, spinal BMD in the 500 mg/day calcium supplement group decreased significantly less (- 0.029 g/cm2, P = 0.042) than in the placebo group (- 0.045 g/cm2), and femoral neck BMD in the 500 mg/day calcium supplement group decreased significantly less (- 0.027 g/cm2, P = 0.049) than in the placebo group (- 0.038 g/cm2). In contrast, changes in neither spinal nor femoral neck BMD significantly differed between the three treatment groups in the higher PA subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: PA is a favorable effect modifier of the association between calcium intake and bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with low calcium intake. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY NUMBER: UMIN000001176. PMID: 30734085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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