MRI-based assessment of proximal femur strength compared to mechanical testing.
Bone. 2020 Jan 08;:115227 Authors: Rajapakse CS, Farid AR, Kargilis DC, Jones BC, Lee JS, Johncola AJ, Batzdorf AS, Shetye SS, Hast MW, Chang G
Half of the women who sustain a hip fracture would not qualify for osteoporosis treatment based on current DXA-estimated bone mineral density criteria. Therefore, a better approach is needed to determine if an individual is at risk of hip fracture from a fall. The objective of this study was to determine the association between radiation-free MRI-derived bone strength and strain simulations compared to results from direct mechanical testing of cadaveric femora. Imaging was conducted on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner using two sequences: one balanced steady-state free precession sequence with 300 μm isotropic voxel size and one spoiled gradient echo with anisotropic voxel size of 234 × 234 × 1500 μm. Femora were dissected free of soft-tissue and 4350-ohm strain-gauges were securely applied to surfaces at the femoral shaft, inferior neck, greater trochanter, and superior neck. Cadavers were mechanically tested with a hydraulic universal test frame to simulate loading in a sideways fall orientation. Sideways fall forces were simulated on MRI-based finite element meshes and bone stiffness, failure force, and force for plastic deformation were computed. Simulated bone strength metrics from the 300 μm isotropic sequence showed strong agreement with experimentally obtained values of bone strength, with stiffness (r = 0.88, p = 0.0002), plastic deformation point (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001), and failure force (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). The anisotropic sequence showed similar trends for stiffness, plastic deformation point, and failure force (r = 0.68, 0.70, 0.84; p = 0.02, 0.01, 0.0006, respectively). Surface strain-gauge measurements showed moderate to strong agreement with simulated magnitude strain values at the greater trochanter, superior neck, and inferior neck (r = -0.97, -0.86, 0.80; p ≤0.0001, 0.003, 0.03, respectively). The findings from this study support the use of MRI-based FE analysis of the hip to reliably predict the mechanical competence of the human femur in clinical settings. PMID: 31926345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]