History of etidronate.
Bone. 2020 Jan 03;:115222 Authors: Watts NB, Chesnut CH, Genant HK, Harris ST, Jackson RD, Licata AA, Miller PD, Mysiw WJ, Richmond B, Valent D
Etidronate is a non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate. Because it binds with calcium and inhibits crystal formation and dissolution, it was considered by Procter & Gamble as an additive to toothpaste (to prevent build-up of tartar) and detergent (to bind calcium and increase sudsing in "hard" water). The first clinical use (1968) was for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. The first approved clinical use (1977) was for treatment of Paget's disease of bone. Other approved indications are hypercalcemia of malignancy and heterotopic ossification, with a host of off-label uses (including fibrous dysplasia, periodontal disease, multiple myeloma, neuropathic arthropathy, pulmonary microlithiasis, diabetic retinopathy, bone metastases, melorheostosis, urinary stone disease, periodontal disease, etc.). Unique among bisphosphonates, etidronate (oral therapy) results in hyperphosphatemia, increased tubular reabsorption of phosphorus and increased levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The dose that reduces bone resorption is close to the dose that impairs mineralization; prolonged high-dose use can result in osteomalacia and bone fractures. Intermittent cyclic etidronate for osteoporosis resulted in favorable changes in bone density and histomorphometry (no mineralization defect) as well as a decrease in vertebral fracture rates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Later studies showed similar effects in men with osteoporosis and patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Although its use for osteoporosis has given way to newer bisphosphonates and other agents, because of its unique properties, it remains the bisphosphonate of choice for treatment of heterotopic ossification. PMID: 31911206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]